On this day:

1930: Attempted raid on British armoury in Chittagong in Bengal province, British India by revolutionaries led by Surya Sen

1949: Ireland becomes an independent republic

1951: The European Coal and Steel Community, a precursor of the European Union, is established

Born on this day:

1964: Niall Ferguson, Scottish historian

Gone on this day:

1955: Albert Einstein, German/American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate